Hajj Advice: The Three Types of Hajj and How to Perform Umrah
The Three Types of Hājj
To begin, we should note that there are three types of Hājj one may perform. This manual will focus primarily on the Hājj Tamattu’. Let us start by mentioning that the Prophet (saws) only performed one Hājj during his lifetime. During the course of this journey, he s performed an ‘Umrah, as such, it is sunnah to perform an Umrah prior to the performance of Hājj.
Throughout this, you will notice the mentioning of “Ihrām”. Ihrām is a special spiritual state that contains within it various rules and boundaries. We will discuss this concept further in the text.
As the pilgrim makes his or her intention to enter into the state of Ihrām, they must choose which Hājj they intend to perform.
- Hājj Tamattu’: The initial intention when passing over the Mīqāt (either on a plane or by bus from Madīnah) is made to perform an ‘Umrah, not Hājj. After completing the rites of the ‘Umrah, the pilgrim then waits until the 8th of Dhụ al-Hījjah for the first day of Hājj. On this day, they re-enter the state of Ihrām and begin their Hājj.
- Hājj Qīrān: The defining element of the Hājj Qīrān is the fact that there is an intention to perform both the Umrah and the Hājj in a single Ihrām. This means that after Umrah, the pilgrim is still in a state of Ihrām and continues to be in the Ihrām until the day of Eid.
- Hājj Ifrad: The intention that enters one into a state of Ihrām is done prior to beginning the Hājj and there is no accompanying Umrah. That being said, one can clearly see this may not be applicable for those visiting Makkah from afar.
Umrah (for Hājj Tamattu’)
This section is devoted for pilgrims who will be performing Hājj Tamattu’.
State of Ihram
If your intention is indeed to perform the Hājj Tamattu’, you must recite the intention for performing the Umrah of Hājj Tamattu’ prior to crossing beyond the Mīqāt boundary. This can happen one of two ways: you will be flying over the boundary (the pilot will announce 45 minutes before) or you will be driving past the Mīqāt on your way from Madīnah to Makkah. After you have made the intention, you are now in the state of Ihrām.
اَلّلٰهُمَّ اِنِّيْ اُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ فَيَسِّرْهَا لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهَا مِنِّيْ
O Allah! I intend to perform Umrah, make it easy
for me and accept my Umrah from me.
لَبَّيْكَ اَللّٰهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ ◌ لَبَّيْكَ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ◌ اِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ ◌لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَكَ◌
Entering the Haram
Upon arriving at the Haram, make your way towards the Ka’bah. On your way to the Ka’bah, constantly recite the Talbīyah. Prior to leaving your room to depart, perform your wudu’. We advise this because wudu’ areas in the Haram are generally very crowded during the days of the Hājj season.
While reciting the Talbīyah on the way to the Ka’bah, try to orient yourself towards the direction of the center of the Haram where the Ka’bah is. This shouldn’t be too difficult as you’ll notice nearly everyone is heading in that very same direction!
Upon first sight of the Ka’bah, make Duā to Allah ﷻ for allowing you to visit the blessed city of Makkah and to gaze upon the Ka’bah itself. Keep your eyes upon the ground until you arrive in the presence of the Ka’bah. It is now time to make Duā to Allah ﷻ in this auspicious moment in your life.
After making your Duā, it is now time to begin the performance of the Umrah. In a nutshell, Umrah is basically made up of Tawāf (circumambulation seven times around the Ka’bah), the Sāee (the movements between Mount Safā and Mount Marwah), and lastly, a haircut to take one out of the state of Ihrām.
Stages of Umrah
There are four stages for the Umrah:
- Ihrām: put on at the Mīqāt.
- Tawāf: around the Ka’bah.
- Sāee: walking between Safā and Marwah seven times.
- Taḥallul: coming out of the state of Ihrām.
How to Perform Umrah
- Prior to leaving your home for the Mīqāt, take a shower. You are allowed to put on perfume and comb your hair at this juncture.
- Men will change into the Ihrām (2 white pieces of cloth); Women may wear any permissible clothing.
- At the Mīqāt make intention to perform Umrah; Recite the Talbīyah.
- Upon arrival at the Ka’bah – proceed to the Black stone (or stay in line with it) – raise your right hand and say “Bismillaahi wa Allah Akbar”.
Intention for Tawāf
O Allah! I intend to perform the Tawāf of your sacred house, make my Tawāf easy for me and accept it from me. Seven rounds for Allah ﷻ, most high.
Recite between the Yemeni stone (the corner before the Black Stone) and the Black Stone:
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ ◌
Our Lord, grant us good in this world and in the hereafter
and save us from the punishment of the next.
At the Black Stone send a flying kiss whilst repeating three times:
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ اَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ ◌
In the name of Allah, Allah is Greater.
- For the first three circuits, men will reveal their right arm (as in the picture).
- During Tawāf make supplication from your heart, for that which will benefit you. Recite whatever you wish, supplicate to Allah ﷻ by asking for good, recite from the Qur’ān, anything you wish.
- Upon completion of the Tawāf (7 circuits) proceed to the Maqam Ibrahim and recite this verse (which means): “And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of Prayer…”. (Qur’ān, 2:125)
- At the Maqam Ibrahim – behind it – you will pray 2 Rakats. It is preferred to recite during the first Rakat Surah al-Kafirun (Qur’ān, 109) and during the second one Surah al-lkhlas (Qur’ān, 112).
- If possible, drink Zam Zam water – the fountains are directly behind you – then proceed to the Sāee area (Mount Safā)
اَللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّيْ اَسألُكَ عِلْمًا نَّافِعًا وَّرِزْقًا وَّاسِعًا
وَّشِفَاءً مِّنْ كُلِّ دَآءٍ◌
O Allah! I am asking you for the beneficial knowledge and an extensive sustenance and a cure from ills.
At Safā recite:
إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ۚ وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ◌
Verily, As-Safā and al-Marwah are from the symbols of Allah. So it is not a sin on him who performs Hājj or Umrah of the house (Ka’bah) to perform the going (Tawāf) between them. And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allah is the All-Recognizer, All-Knower. (Qur’ān, 2:158)
- Then proceed to Marwah – do this for 7 times ending at Marwah – between the green light move faster – There are no particular supplications to be recited between Safā and Marwah.
- Then one is to have his hair cut, although shaving it is better. Women should shorten their hair by a fingertips length from the end. Someone outside of Ihrām must cut your hair.
- The Umrah is now complete.
After the completion of your Umrah, it’s important to remember that unlike Hājj Qīrān where you don’t cut your hair, you will cut your hair because you are performing Hājj Tamattu’. At this juncture, Umrah is completed. Proceed back to your room.
Rules of Ihrām
Once in the spiritual state of Ihrām, the following has become forbidden upon you:
- Usage of any form of perfume or fragrant (includes soap etc.).
- Cutting or plucking of one’s hair, this includes excessive scratching which will cause hair to fall; Cutting nails.
- Wearing leather socks, stitched cloths, boots, and shoes.
- Touching scent intentionally (touching the black stone or the Ka’bah is exempt from this as long as your intention is to carry out recommended Sunnah).
- To kill or hunt.
- Covering the head (only for males includes not wearing a hat for salāh etc.); Covering the face (only females).
- Sexual intercourse, ‘love-play’ or kissing.
- Quarreling, fighting, and the use of bad language.
- Smoking is not recommended (as it omits a fragrance).